This information is taken from the Technical Bulletins from the Piano Technicians Guild
Used with Permission



Your piano, just like every piano, is designed to sound its best when tuned to A-440 (the A above middle vibrates 440 cycles per second), the international pitch standard. It has been designed to perform at a specific tension, and when strings stretch beyond, or drop below this tension pitch adjustments are required to bring it back to A-440. It’s important to remember that maintaining your piano at standard pitch allows you to play along with other instruments which are all designed this same standard. Through neglect, pianos may deviate from this standard, making them unsuitable to play with other instruments and causing them to lose market value. In addition, lower pitched instruments can compromise the pianist’s ear training.

It’s important to note that pianos do not go flat or sharp uniformly. Some strings will invariably change more than others.

If I haven’t had my piano tuned regularly, how can I get it back in good playing condition?

After years of regular use, your piano may have fallen silent when the family member who studied music moved aways from home. Though your home is no longer filled with music, it’s important to remember you piano is still a living, breathing thing. Its wood continues to expand and contract with seasonal changes in temperature and humidity, and the string tension also fluctuates accordingly. If your piano has gone without tuning for an extended period, its pitch may have dropped far below the pitch at which it was designed to perform. It may require a procedure technicians call a “pitch raise.”

Why has my piano become out of tune?

Changes take place because your piano’s overall pitch is dependent upon changes in the relative humidity. In some temperate regions of the country, the relative humidity increases in the summer resulting in a higher moisture content in the soundboard and a higher string tension (pitch). In the winter, when heating systems dry the air, the soundboard loses moisture and contracts, causing the pitch to drop. The drop in the winter tends to exceed the rise in the summer, so the net result is a drop in pitch each year that the piano isn’t serviced. In some parts of the country where the cold season is exceptionally long, the annual drop can be considerable. In other parts, mild winters combined with dry summers cause the cycle to be reversed. You can, however, greatly increase the stability of your piano’s pitch by maintaining a relatively consistent humidity level in the room.

Why is a pitch raise necessary ?

When the tension of each string on a piano is raised back up to pitch, the additional load on the pianos structure causes the pitch of previously adjusted strings to change. The only way to achieve a fine, accurate tuning on a piano is to have the tension of all the strings so close to their proper place that altering the tension of one string would affect the others. Therefore, a piano must already be fairly close to standard pitch to be finely tuned.

Wouldn't It be easier to just tune the piano to the lower pitch?

Tuning to anything other than the international standard of A-440 is seldom appropriate. If a very old piano has been allowed to remain appreciably below pitch for a long time, some strings may break if the piano is restored to A-440. Your technician will advise you as to whether repeated tunings will correct the problem, or if the piano should be completely restrung or rebuilt.

If a piano has dropped in pitch, the drop will not be even. The middle (tenor) section of the piano usually drops most along with the high treble section. The bass section tends to drop least. Consequently, a piano that is tuned to a pitch that is below the international pitch standard would have to have significant adjustments made to the tension of every string, resulting in an unstable tuning. It’s much more reliable to bring the piano up to standard pitch and then to proceed with fine tuning.

How far from the standard pitch must a piano be before a pitch raise in necessary?

Pianos that have been subjected to severe changes in humidity routinely need pitch raises before a fine tuning can be achieved. For example, if A-440 has drifted only two cycles per second to A-438, a separate pitch raise is advisable. Most recreational musicians would want to have their pianos tuned before the pitch drops that far. Even if you aren’t bothered by a slightly out-of-tune piano, it’s best to tune the piano on a regular basis to avoid tuning instability and the extra cost of a pitch raising procedure.

Like your car, your piano is a major investment which deserves to be protected by regular servicing, which can head off preventable problems in the future. But most importantly, your piano will sound its best and give you and your family the most pleasure when it is tuned regularly and kept in proper playing condition.



Your piano is made primarily of wood, a versatile and beautiful material ideal for piano construction. However, being made of wood, your piano is greatly affected by humidity. Seasonal, and even daily, changes in humidity cause wood parts to swell and shrink, affecting tuning stability and touch. Extreme swings in humidity can eventually cause wood to crack and glue joints to fail.

Other materials in your piano also are affected by changes in moisture content in the air. The many felt and leather parts in your piano’s action can change dimension, affecting regulation and friction, or stiffness, of the touch. Very high humidity can even create condensation on metal parts such as strings, tuning pins and hardware, eventually causing them to rust.

How does humidity level affect my piano's tuning?

Swelling and shrinking of the piano’s soundboard is the most immediate and noticeable effect of humidity change. The soundboard, a sheet of wood approximately 3/8 of an inch thick, is made with a slightly crowned shape. The strings pass over the soundboard and are connected to it by a wooden piece called a bridge. The upward crown of the soundboard presses the bridge tightly against the strings.

As the moisture level in the soundboard increases during periods of high relative humidity, the crown expands and pushes the bridge harder against the strings. The strings are stretched tighter and the piano’s pitch rises. Because this increase in crown is greater in the center of the soundboard than at the edges, the pitch rises more in the middle octaves than in the bass or treble registers.

During periods of low relative humidity the soundboard shrinks, reducing the crown and decreasing pressure against the strings. The pitch drops, again with the greatest effect noticeable in the center of the keyboard. When relative humidity returns to its previous level, the average pitch of all the strings will return to normal, although the exact pitch of individual strings will be slightly changed from their original settings. Thus, a piano will only stay in tune as long as the relative humidity level in the air surrounding the soundboard remains constant. Extreme humidity changes require making greater changes in string tension to bring the piano into tune. This upsets the equilibrium between the string tension and the piano frame, and the piano never becomes stable.

What is relative humidity?

Wood swells and shrinks in response to changes in the relative humidity of the air around it. Relative humidity is the amount of moisture contained in the air, compared to the maximum amount of moisture that it is capable of holding. The moisture content of air is affected by weather as well as conditions and activities within the home, while the moisture-holding capacity of air varies with temperature. One way of thinking about RH is that it is a measure of air’s tendency to absorb or release moisture to its surroundings. thus when RH of air in a room increases, moisture will tend to transfer from the air to wood and other absorbent materials in the room. When the RH of air decreases, moisture will transfer from other materials back into the air. The RH of the atmosphere is always changing by the hour and, more dramatically, with the seasons. Consequently, the wood and felt parts in your piano are constantly changing dimension as they absorb and release moisture.

Since RH depends upon the temperature and moisture content of the air, it is not possible to maintain a constant RH by controlling room temperature alone. In fact, maintaining an even temperature while moisture content varies will cause RH to change.

What can be done to minimize humidity problems?

Keeping the humidity level around your piano as constant as possible will help it tune longer as well as slow such damage as soundboard cracks, loose tuning pins, and glue joint failures. The first and simplest precaution you can take is to position your piano away from areas where it would be exposed to extremes of temperature and humidity such as heating and cooling vents, stoves, doors and windows. Direct sunlight is especially damaging. If your home is not well insulated, an interior wall is preferable to an outside wall.

Controlling the humidity within the home is another step you can take to preserve your instrument. In most areas of the country the relative humidity is very low during the cold winter season, and very high during the spring and summer. In other areas these humidity cycles are reversed. Wherever you live, you have probably noticed the symptoms of low RH (shocks from static electricity when sliding out of a car or after walking across carpet), and the signs of high RH (limp, soggy-feeling newspapers and sticking doors). To monitor RH changes in your home, you may wish to purchase a moderately priced wall hygrometer available from most instrument supply companies or electronic stores. 

Use of a room humidifier during dry seasons will help somewhat. However, too much moisture added to a room during winter months can cause condensation to form on cold surfaces such as windows, eventually causing mildew, rot, and in extreme cases, damage to the building structure. During the humid season de-humidification is needed. If your humid season is winter, keeping the home evenly heated will help. However, humid summer situations will require much more elaborate de-humidification systems. Unfortunately, it is seldom possible to adequately control the relative humidity of a piano by controlling the room environment alone.

A very practical and effective answer to humidity problems is to have a humidity control system installed in the piano itself. These systems consist of three parts: a humidifier for adding moisture to the air, a de-humidifier for eliminating excess moisture, and a humidistat or control unit which senses the RH of the air within the piano and activates the system to ad or remove moisture as needed. These systems are designed to maintain the RH of the air within the piano at the ideal level of 42%. The components are installed out of sight, inside the case of a vertical piano or under the soundboard of a grand. They are easy to maintain, and can be installed by your piano technician.

How will humidity control benefit my piano?

While not eliminating the need for regular piano maintenance, humidity control will allow more stable tunings by reducing the radical pitch changes your piano may experience through the season. When your piano stays closer to its correct pitch level of A-440 (A=440 cycles per second), your technician does not have to perform a large pitch raising or lowering procedure prior to fine tuning. Thus, a balance of forces is maintained between the strings and the frame of the piano, allowing more accurate and stable tunings to be done. 

In addition, a stable environment will help to preserve your piano through the years. Wood parts, glue joints, metal parts and your piano’s finish will all last longer if not subjected to excessive humidity swings. Maintaining the correct environment will preserve your piano investment for a lifetime of enjoyment.



As a conscientious piano owner, you probably have your piano tuned regularly by a qualified technician. You may, however, notice a deterioration of its performance despite regular tuning. It’s important to note that tuning is only the adjustment of the system of strings and pins that determines pitch of each string. Your piano also requires a periodic servicing called regulation, which attends to the mechanical parts which cause strings to sound when keys are played and affect the sound through use of the pedals.

What is regulation and how does it affect my piano's performance?

Regulation is the adjustment of the mechanical aspects of the piano to compensate for the effect of wear, the compacting and settling of cloth, felt and buckskin, as well as dimensional changes in wood and wool parts due to changes in humidity.

The three systems involved in regulation are the action, trapwork and damper system. The action is the mechanical part of the piano that transfers the motion of the fingers on the keys to the hammers that strike the strings. It is comprised of over 9,000 parts which require adjustments to critical tolerances to be able to respond to a pianist’s every command. The trapwork is the assemblage of level, dowels and springs that connects the pedals to the action affecting sustain and dynamics. The damper system is the mechanical part of the piano that stops the vibration of the string when you release the key and is controlled by the ket and pedal system.

If I have my piano tuned regularly, why do I need to have it regulated?

While tuning corrects the pitch of your piano, it is only one component of a complete maintenance program. Regulation attends to the touch and uniform responsiveness of your action, both vitalto making each performance pleasurable. In addition, regulation ensures that your instrument is capable of producing a wide dynamic range – a critical factor, particularly in pianissimo passages.

Music is one of the most comples vehicles expression. Its beauty is relliant upon personal interpretation which employs use of changes in dynamics and tempi. These changes require extremely fine adjustments to respond to the pianist’s nuances and subtle shadings. A smooth, even response throughout the entire range of the keyboard and an extremely quick action capable of playing rapid passages and repeated notes evenly is essential. Outstanding response is essential for a pianist to creaate an outstanding performance. 

Do all pianos need to be regulated?

All upright and grand pianos need periodic regulation to perform their best. Frequency of regulation is dependent upon amount of use, exposure to climatic changes, and the instrument’s quality, age and condition. New pianos may require regulation in their first year because setting and compacting of parts sometimes necessitates adjustment.

How often is regulation needed?

Only you and your technician together should decide how frequently your piano needs regulation. Several factors can contribute to this. The intensity and number of hours your instrument is played, and climatic conditions are all determinants. A piano kept in relatively consistent conditions which are neither too wet nor dry, optimally at a temperature of 68 degrees Fahrenheit and 42 percent relative humidity, will require less adjustment.

The quality of the instrument itself also can affect frequency of regulation. Some manufacturers decrease costs by not going over the regulation and voicing precesses in the factory as much as needed. Reputable retailers sometimes do the necessary regulation themselves prior to selling the piano, but others don’t.

Also, performance instruments may require some regulation before each use, due to the higher demands placed on them.

What are the signs that my piano needs regulation?

If your instrument displays a lack of sensitivity or a decreased dynamic range, it’s a candidate for regulation. If you notice that the keys are not level, meaning that some are higher and lower than the rest, the touch is uneven or that the keys are sticking, the need for regulation is indicated. However, a sluggish action or deep grooves in the hammers indicate the need for reconditioning or repair. Ask your technician to show you what needs adjustment on your piano.

No amount of practice can compensate for a poorly maintained action. Poor legato touch, chord playing where all notes of the chord don’t speak clearly, a gradual loss of subtlety in phrasing and an inability to execute quick passages or note repetitions evenly may be the fault of the piano – not the player.

Why is reconditioning or rebuilding of the mechanical systems sometimes necessary prior to regulation?

Prior to regulation, your technician will assess the condition of your instrument. If it has badly worn parts or if there has been corrosion or moth damage, the piano may not be able to be properly regulated without some repair or replacements of parts. 

Reconditioning is the process of putting your piano back in good condition by cleaning, repairing, and adjusting your instrument for maximum performance with replacement parts only where specifically indicated. If your piano has deteriorated beyond simple reconditioning, it may need to be rebuilt.

Rebuilding involves complete disassembly, inspection and repair as necessary with replacement of all worn or deteriorated parts. The piano is then reassembled, tested and adjusted to the same or similar tolerance and performance as when it was new.

Your piano is a major investment, which deserves to be protected through regular servicing by a qualified technician. Properly maintained, your piano will sound its best and give you and your family a lifetime of enjoyment.



Every piano has its own unique sound. One might be described as “glassy,” another as “warm.” One might have a “full singing” tone, and yet another sounds “thin.”

Although the original design establishes the basic character of your piano’s tone, your technician can modify it to better suit your taste or restore its original tone if it has deteriorated with age.

The process of modifying a piano’s tone is called voicing.